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An agent called Cloud-Init on Linux and Cloudbase-Init on Windows runs as part of the initial guest provisioning.

There are quite a few actions performed, with username and password management being just one of those.

By default a user called admin is provisioned on the instance. The encrypted password can be retrieved with nova get-password (there's an Horizon equivalent UI action):

nova get-password vm1 ~\.ssh\id_rsa

PowerShell userdata scripts can also be passed as part of the boot action (see for example the Horizon interface), for example:

Set-Content c:\hello.txt "Hello OpenStack"

Some suggested introductory readings:


Cloudbase-init github site for reference documentation:

For orchestration:

Windows Heat templates:

Juju orchestration: